A report by the US State Department accused the governments of Myanmar, China, and Russia of trafficking and forced labor, and called “the government a trafficker” in China’s Xinjiang Province, citing “massive detentions and political indoctrination campaigns against Uyghurs. They mainly Are Muslims, as well as members of other ethnic and religious minorities”, in the past four years.
State Department on Global Human trafficking The report released on Thursday also included NATO ally Turkey on the list of countries that recruited or used child soldiers by “armed forces, police or other security forces.”
Unless the President of the United States issues an exemption, this designation may imply sanctions on military aid or sales to these countries.
“We recorded 11 countries where the government itself is traffickers. For example, through public works projects or forced labor in economic sectors that the government considers particularly important,” Secretary of State Anthony Brinken said at a press conference.
“The report has recorded for 10 consecutive years how the Cuban government has profited from exploitative medical missions overseas.”
The Biden administration stated that a total of 17 countries have not done enough to combat human trafficking.
Blinken said that the 2021 annual report will also focus on people who have caused social inequities due to global crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, and “systemic racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination.”
The annual Trafficking in Persons Report (TIP) published since 2001 uses the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) to define “serious” human trafficking as “Sex trade Among them, commercial sex is induced by force, fraud or coercion, or the person who induces such behavior is not 18.
The definition also includes “recruiting, harbouring, transporting, providing or obtaining someone to perform labor or service for the purpose of involuntary slavery through the use of force, fraud or coercion.”
Although the exact number is unknown, “the estimate we often quote is that nearly 25 million people worldwide are victims of human trafficking,” Brinken said. “Many people are forced Commercial workMany people are forced to work in factories or fields, or join armed groups. Millions of victims of human trafficking are children. This crime is an affront to human rights. “
The TIP report ranks countries based on their compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking under the TVPA.
There are three floors. Tier 1 includes governments that fully meet the minimum standards. level 2 The report said it includes governments that do not meet the requirements “but are making major efforts to make themselves compliant.”
There is a tier 2 watch list, which includes countries that “estimate that the number of victims of severe forms of trafficking is very high or is increasing significantly”, and those that have failed to “provide evidence that they are stepping up efforts to combat them from the previous year.”
The worst level, level 3, is for countries that “their government does not fully meet the minimum standards” and have not made major efforts to achieve this. Ranking at this level means that if the president decides to suspend, the country “may be subject to certain foreign aid restrictions.”
The State Department downgraded Malaysia and Guinea-Bissau to level 3 this year.
This move is U.S. banned Last year, three Malaysian companies in the palm oil and electronics industries worried about forced labor and poor working and living conditions.
Azry Akmar Ayob, a member of the Malaysian Police’s Anti-Human Trafficking and Anti-Smuggling Immigration Department, told Reuters on June 30 that such labor problems are not widespread.
The impact of COVID
The report specifically emphasizes the impact of the pandemic on human trafficking and those working to stop crime.
female According to the report, children and people facing food and economic insecurity have been severely affected by the pandemic.
Blockade means Stop the spread of COVID-19According to the report, this has led to a “lack of credible and accurate data”, “posed a challenge to effective and efficient anti-trafficking work in the world,” and exacerbated economic insecurity.
“It is clear that COVID-19 has increased the vulnerability of millions of people and has adversely affected efforts to combat human trafficking,” it continued.
It cited a report by the Office of European Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) and UN Women’s Office of Security and Cooperation, which “emphasized that nearly 70% of human trafficking survivors from 35 countries reported that their financial situation was serious Damaged. Affected by COVID-19″.
According to the report, anti-trafficking organizations and the government have still found “a way to adapt and establish new relationships to overcome challenges.”
“Some governments and organizations have conducted in-depth evaluations to identify changing trends. Others use technology to drive innovative solutions.”
Brinken also honored eight “TIP report heroes”, including survivors, government employees, and NGO employees.
These include Mohammed al-Obaidly, Assistant Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Administrative Development, Labor and Social Affairs of Qatar.
The TIP report acknowledges that Qatar has Not resolved yet All “human trafficking” or labor rights issues, but al-Obaidy “and his team in the ministry continue to work towards the goal of increasing transparency and protecting migrant workers from forced labor.”
Although the TIP report focuses on global efforts to combat human trafficking, Blinken acknowledges America’s own shortcomings.
Brinken said that improved cooperation with global partners must “include acceptance of our role in perpetuating violent and dehumanized people, and we must work to correct these past mistakes.”